Sunday, January 26, 2020
Who Is To Blame For Low Voter Turnout Politics Essay Democracy is the most favorable form of government in todays world. Its being said that we all should work hand in hand in order to make decisions on certain political matters and that can only be made possible through participation which is voting. Our right to vote is guaranteed in Canada under section 3 of Charter of Rights and freedomsÃ Ã but many people dont exercise this right. But if they had not been granted this right, they probably will feel offended and divested. Regardless of Section 3, Canadian voter turnout in recent years has been disappointing and not very reassuring. In past few decades, there has been a gradual decrease in voter turnout in Canada. Turnout has dropped significantly since 1988. In 2000, the turnout reached lowest mark ever but the record was further broken in 2008 federal electionsÃ Ã which raised eyebrows of all political parties and further raised questions and concerns whether Canadian democracy and the electoral system are effective enough. A number of scholars and political scientists argue that we need to bring in a new effective electoral system in order to increase voter turnout and government and policy makers have also commenced ways to improve Canadian democracy. This paper examines the voter turnout in past few decades, reasons for decrease in voter turnout, including cynicism and apathy of voters and various possible reforms in order to make Canadian democracy more effective. Voter turnout can be described as when registered voters vote and when registered voters marked a ballot during elections. It is calculated by dividing number of valid votes by registered electoral districtsÃ Ã . It doesnt count rejected ballots or spoiled ballots. Voter turnout is really important in determining peoples confidence and satisfaction with the government, political parties, and their policies. It is also a good sign of healthy democracy. High voter turnout legitimizes the governments authority over people. Voter turnout also reflects peoples interest in politics and decisions being made by political members on their behalf. It also shows civic literacy among people in regards to political issues. Increase in turnout will decrease inequality among social groupsÃ Ã . But the big story in news from past two decades is decrease in voter turnout. From 1945 to 1988 Canada has enjoyed high level of voter turnoutÃ Ã . Since 1988 it has decreased significant ly, with the lowest mark in 2008 federal elections. It was 75 % in 1988 compared to 64.7% in 2006 and 58 % in 2008Ã Ã . Canada has enjoyed very high voter turnout until 1988. Voter turnout in Canada is low compared to other countries such as Australia, France, Germany, New Zealand and United KingdomÃ Ã . The questions that arises is why do some people vote and others dont enjoy this privilege. Why is it so low in Canada? This question has been a hot topic and central to many political scientists and political researchÃ Ã . Possible Causes This can be due to cynicism and apathy of people. People are very pessimistic about what government does and there is an absence of enthusiasm in people. Recent studies argue that voters felt cynical, disappointed, dissatisfied and there was a sense of disempowerment. People think that government wastes a lot of time and money rather than making right choices for common good. Its bureaucracy and decisions are made by bureaucrats. They make decisions based on their own interests. Politicians are dishonest, self-centered, unaccountable, lack integrity and accomplish very littleÃ Ã . Lots of research has been done on this particular topic by various authors, political scientists and agencies but no specific or static reasons were explained or they are yet to be revealed. Each study revealed different aspects, different reasons and circumstances for low voter turnout. Lots of those studies revealed variables independent of cynicism and apathy of voters. There are lots of other possible causes for lower voter turnouts. These factors range from personal reasons to age and gender. Voters lack of involvement because of disinterest in elections is one of the main causes of low voter turnoutÃ Ã . They usually think that their votes are meaningless and hence will not make any difference if they dont vote. But people seem to have forgotten that every vote counts and every vote makes a difference. That being said, one of the reasons behind this thinking is that government usually proposes referendums during elections and these referendums reflects a change or propo ses a particular constitutional measure. A good example would be Charlottetown Accord, 1992Ã Ã . People who are not involved in voting are unaware of these referendums and hence delay all the changes that would have otherwise been considered as positive changes. Also people are less likely to find the parties, their policies, candidates and appealing leadersÃ Ã . Every party proposes few legislations and policies that they will implement after they have been choosen. Reason why people dont find these policies appealing is because those policies dont meet their expectations and totally meaningless to them. People also dont find their leaders charismatic. If we look at the census, Liberal party has made majority government most of the times. Liberals had some exceptional leaders such as Sir Wilfrid Laurier, William Lyon Mackenzie King, Lester B. Pearson, Pierre Trudeau, Jean Chretien and these leaders have had charisma. They attracted people towards them because the po licies they discussed before elections, implemented most of themÃ Ã . Current government has been criticized by everyone for not coming up with strategies to fight economic deficit and fighting recession. Action plan was developed but it did not have much impactÃ Ã . Another reason that can be considered responsible for low voter turnout is personal or administrative components of voters lifeÃ Ã . Voting usually takes place during daytime and weekdays. Most people go to work or school or are unable to vote due to various personal problems. Sometimes, their electoral district is too far from work and they are unable to vote. A lot of people are also preoccupied with their families, kids and other family responsibilities after hours and are unable to go down to their constituency and vote. In conclusion, these reasons could be the few basic reasons that led to decline in voter turnout. There are few other controversial reasons which affects voter turnout. Timing is considered one of them. It has been said that people are usually away during summer time on vacation and winter weather conditions can deter participation. It also explains cross sectional variations. Weather conditions do have an effect on voter turnoutÃ Ã whereas statistics Canada doesnt provide any such evidence. Also none of the other studies provide any evidence for this argument with further research. Elections have been conducted at various days, various monthsÃ Ã . Television and turnout is another controversial reason but there hasnt been much debate on this particular topic. It has been said that TV is a revolution in democracy and it gives people clear understanding of trends and issues but it has reduced voter turnout. TV has reduced radios efficiency which is really effective in rural areasÃ Ã .People use their leisure time in watching TV rather than listening to poli tical agendas on radio. They spend more time in entertainment as opposed to focusing on informative aspectsÃ Ã . No other studies provide such evidence. Socio-economic characteristics also affect voter turnout. Turnout is high in advanced countries. Advanced countries are more likely to participate in their countries matter and decisionsÃ Ã . Other factors include changing times and values, religion, long authority of one political party, political disaffection, gender, education, origin etcÃ Ã 23. Lower Youth Participation and Enhancement Even though these factors play significant role in voter turnout but not all political scientists and scholars agree on them. They all seem to agree on two main reasons that have a huge impact on voter turnout in past as well as in recent elections and these reasons are youth electoral engagement and Canadian Electoral System. Less participation of youth or apathy among youth can be a possible reason as discussed by many political scientistsÃ Ã . Politicians and government are concerned about why young people dont participate in elections or if they do, why their turnout is so low as compared to other age groups. The turnout between age group of 18 to 24 is still relatively small. Knowing that fact that it has been decreasing, actual reasons behind this are still foggy and poorly understood. In 2008 federal elections total turnout was 58.8% and lowest turnout was among age group of 18-24 with 37.4%Ã Ã . Youth in Canada dont involve themselves in Canadian Politics. Mor e research needs to be done to find out what motivates young people. Centre for Information and Research on Canada, at one instance mentioned: Many young adults are highly mobile, and so less rooted in their communities and less aware of community needs and issues. For these reasons, they are likely to be less interested in elections. But as they grow old, it generally assumed that they will become more likely to voteÃ Ã But politicians and government arent that optimistic as young voters are moving away from politics. This can be determined by looking at enrollment of student in Political Science courses at University level. It has been gradually decliningÃ Ã . Youth must be encouraged to participate in elections. Young voters tendency to vote needs to be understood. Also Canadian leaders or parties should directly address Canadian youth during electionsÃ Ã . Seminars or multimedia campaigns should be conducted for young people to educate them and make them more aware of Canadian political system and how to participate in it. Round table discussions in colleges and universities would be an effective step in civic literacy of youth and parents must discuss politics with their children at home and it will definitely enhance their politics skills. Also students must stay in school and schools should offer political science courses or make them mandatory or compulsoryÃ Ã . New experiments and tests needs to be designed to increase voter turnout not just among youth but overall populationÃ Ã . We need to give profound consideration to Canadian youth and their needs. Much needs be done in order to over come this matter. Electoral System and Possible Reforms Although electoral system is not the sole problem for low voter turnout, it has been blamed primarily for citizens apathy and cynicism. Canadas current electoral system is based on single member plurality or most commonly known as First-Past-the-Post (FPTP) at federal, provincial and municipal level. In this system, a single individual is elected from a riding to represent citizens of that electoral district. Member who receives most votes becomes Member of Parliament. There has been an ongoing debate on whether Canadian electoral system should be changed. Advocates of this system argue that it produces stable majority governmentÃ Ã whereas other political scientists argue that we need new system as it is outdated. There have been lots of problems with current Canadian electoral system including: regional polarization, fairness, under-representation of women, democratic alterationÃ Ã . Once again, advocates replied by saying that there is no solution to regionalism as population is sparsely divided in provinces. There is not much that government or political parties can do in order to overcome that unequal distribution of population. Arguments were also made on proportional representation electoral system by saying that it can create unsought results such as political fragmentation, coalition or minority governments, cabinet instability etc. They further mentioned that theres no guarantee that voter turnout will go up if Canada introduces new electoral system and also its not going to have any effect on representationÃ Ã . Survey was conducted by Elections Canada to find out whether people are satisfied with current electoral system. There werent too many variations in the results i.e. on one hand people want to give up current electoral system and at the same time try proportional representation systemÃ Ã . In recent years, electoral reform proponents are willing to introduce Proportional Representation in Canada. It is a primary substitute to Single Member PluralityÃ Ã . According to this system, each member will get his/her share or a seat based on shares of votes they get, regardless of whether they get highest number of votes or lowest number of votes. This will give a fair and equal chance to all the members who are riding for that constituency. Also voters wouldnt think that their votes are meaningless. They get to choose member of their choice. Proportional Representation has two categories: List System and Single Transferrable VoteÃ Ã . Buy as usual; Proportional Representation has its critics. Critics argue that this will create many small new parties within the legislature, will produce unstable government by giving an opportunity to radical parties to represent themselves and not all constituencies will be coveredÃ Ã . Most democracies in world today use Proportional Representation. Voter turnout level is beyond exception in countries that are practicing proportional representation. It has been widely considered that Proportional Representation will have a huge impact on Canadian political system which includes more representative parliament, reduction of regional polarization, no single party majority governments; equal representation of all members from various constituencies, Prime Minister will have less power, federal and provincial balanceÃ Ã . Research has also demonstrated that Proportional Representation will lead to high turnoutÃ Ã . Provinces such as British Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick have considered this option and have taken appropriate steps to introduce this system among community members. Ontario also introduced Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) System which can also be as another alternative to our current electoral system. Mixed Member Proportionality is mixtur e of local elected districts member and members elected on provincial level from party list. It gives options to people to choose two members at same time, one from party and second a local candidate. It will create stable parties, equal representation, fair election results, accountability; stronger voter participation etcÃ Ã .Alternative vote can also go hand in hand with Proportional Representation. Under alternative vote people have to rank the candidates based on their preference and candidate much receive 50% vote and candidates will lower number of votes are automatically dropped out. Hence number of votes goes up and number of candidates goes downÃ Ã . Electronic Voting is another big alternative that can replace our current electoral system. Surveys conducted have demonstrated that Canadians favor internet voting, especially youth. All provinces have high approval rate. It has been considered the best method to increase voter turnout, even better than Proportional RepresentationÃ Ã . Another surveys conducted by Toronto Star have revealed high approval rateÃ Ã . It will be a lot easier for people to vote online and very reliable. It will solve the problem of those people who cant make it to their electoral districts on voting day. People can regularly provide feedback through surveys about government policies at federal, provincial and municipal levels. Critics argue that internet voting will create legal concerns. Research issues can also lead to failure of this internet voting. In addition, security issues can come into play and resolving these security issues can put extra burden on the budget as it will cost lo st of moneyÃ Ã .Another concern with this is people who are computer illiterate, or people who doesnt have access to computers but the Government is planning to test this system by 2013. Compulsory Voting or Mandatory Voting could be another alternative. In this system, all voters must register and obliged show up on voting day. They still have the choice of not to vote. Fines or other sanctions will be imposed if they dont show up. Many advanced democracies are using mandatory voting such as Australia, Belgium, and Brazil. Voter turnout is very high in these countries. Proponents of this system argue that this will increase voter turnout, election campaigns can focus more on issue rather than teaching people about electoral system. This can also enhance peoples participation in political process other than votingÃ Ã . Compulsory voting critics argue that people will vote just for the sake of voting. This will not express their opinions. It is an undemocratic way to vote and it infringes their charter rights under section 3. Majority of Canadians are against this voting system. Penalties can be expensive for people who cannot afford to pay. It also doesnt add ress questions of low voter turnout and civic literacy among citizensÃ Ã . Lots of different proposals have been discussed by various political scientists which includes civic literacy among people. People should be taught about politics. It can be done through media. Countries with high civic literacy have high voter turnoutÃ Ã . Other proposals say that Permanent Residents should be allowed to vote as they make good amount of Canadian population. Being Permanent Resident, they cannot do certain things and voting is one of them. Critics argue that this infringe section 3 or charter of rights and freedoms and keeps valuable and experienced people away from participation which further declines their interest in politicsÃ Ã . More opportunities for peoples participation in politics should be developed. Diversity should be increased i.e. women and visible minorities. Government should also keep citizens demands in mind and should work on them. Public opinion surveys should be conducted each year to find out satisfaction in government. Public op inion and overall good should be preferred while making diplomatic decisions. Conclusion Voter turnout has been decreasing. Efforts are being to find out the reasons behind it. Different authors, scholars, political scientists use different opinions and views to explain this trend. We must change low voter turnout trend and electoral reform could be a revolutionary idea. Canadian democracy must be improved by putting more emphasis on citizens needs. People should be encouraged to engage in politics through civic literacy. Reforms are not yet being implemented but theres a good chance that they will be looked upon and tested in future. As Canadians, its upto us whether we want to see a change. Research is yet being conducted to reveal what underlies beneath, offer practical solutions and overcome this problem.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Community description and data analysis Orange County is located in the United States of America in the Southern region in the state of California. In addition with Los Angeles to the north, San Diego County to the south and Riverside and San Bernardino counties to the east. There are 84 cites within the county and several unincorporated areas. The County has a total area of 789 square miles of land and 158.6 square miles or 16.6% of water. The average temperature is about 68 degrees Fahrenheit (Ã¢â¬Å"Orange County, CaliforniaÃ¢â¬ ). There are also several beaches that are along the coastland that cover more than 40 miles. In addition to its popularity of being home to Disneyland, this county is well known for being a tourist attraction. Orange County was established after the severe drought in the 1860Ã¢â¬â¢s. During this time cattle ranching collapsed leading the way towards the boom in silver mining. This huge growth in population lead California legislatures to divide Los Angles county and created Orange county as a separate political entity in March 11th, 1889 (Ã¢â¬Å"Orange County, CaliforniaÃ¢â¬ ). The State of California and Orange County are in a severe water shortage as the state has implemented laws to discourage unnecessary water usage. Population and Economic Status From an epidemiologic viewpoint the U.S census in 2012 estimated the population in Orange County to be around 3,090,132 with a population density of 3871 people per square mile. The average household size in Orange County is 2, in addition, the average gross adjusted income of non-migrant tax payers in this county in 2005 was $74,786. The median average contract for rent in 2009 for renting an apartment is approximately $1,367 per month, while the average house value approximated to be around $530,000. The percentage of residents living in poverty in the year 2009 was approximately 10.7% with 5.8% being white non-Hispanic, 13.0% of black residents, 17.3% for Hispanic or Latino, and 18.6% for other race residents. The median age of Orange County residents in 2010 was 36 years old with males having the median age of 34 years old and females 37. The birth rate for live births per 1000 population from the year 2000 to 2006 was 15.4. Death rates showed slightly lower rates per 1000 from the years 2000 to 2006 with 5.8%. Persons enrolled in hospital insurance and/or supplemental medical insurance (Medicare) in the year 2003 was 309,081 (281,334 aged, 27,747 were disabled) (Ã¢â¬Å"Orange County, CaliforniaÃ¢â¬ ). In comparison to residents without health coverage in the year 2000 was estimated at 15%. Unemployment rate is estimated at 143,026, while the amount of employed is estimated at 1,445,477 in the 2010 census report (Ã¢â¬Å"State & County Quick FactsÃ¢â¬ ). Cultural Assessment From the biophysical considerations, the aging baby boomers make up 25.4% of the population in Orange County with more families caring for the elderly at home especially among the Hispanic population. There are over 7,326 persons living in nursing homes in 2010. Coping with stress and adapting to change when the unemployment hit an all time low in 2010 with 10,000 jobs lost put residents in a crisis. Current unemployment rate inÃ Orange County is 5.0% with and estimated 3 million people homeless. There are 44.1% white non-Hispanic, 33.7% Hispanic or Latino, 17.7% Asian and 1.5% Black non- Hispanics living in Orange County. There are slightly more females with 53.0% and males at 47.0%. The Republican Party slightly out numbered the Democratic Party in 2012 by approximately 8,000 votes. In March of 2000 there is a recorded foreign-born entry population of 165,344 people. The current population of college students is 230,749 and people 25 years of age and older with a high school degree or higher is 79.5%.Ã Religion statistics show the Catholic Church Adherents has the highest population of 61.2% with the Jewish ranking at 4.7% and the LDS Mormon Church 3.4%. The most common place of birth other than Orange County among foreign born residents is Mexico at 46% with Vietnam coming in second at 13%. There are 56.6% of residents who speak English at home, compared with 25.3% residents who speak Spanish as their primary language. The government finances expenditure in 2006 for Orange County for assistance and subsidies was $210,973,000 with public welfare and cash assistance programs paying out approximately $6,483,000 (Orange County California). Neighborhood/ Community safety There are approximately 18% of children living in poverty and with 26% living in single-parent households. Social and economic factors showed violent crime rates ranking at 230 and 37 injuries to death. There are no drinking water violations in comparison to 28% claims of severe housing problems among renters. There are a low percentage of people having limited access to food at 1% of the population with 15 homeless shelters found in and around Orange County that have access to food, clothing and shelter (Orange County Health Department). Potential weather events include the high incidence for earthquakes. Orange County area has a historical earthquake activity high above the California state average and 2458% overall above the U.S average (Orange County California). Government finances expenditure for police protection for 2006 estimated over $276,955,000 and cost for correctional institutions was over $178,413,000 (Orange County California). There are 26 police departments and 12 fire departments through out Orange County with first responder medics on duty. The numbers for homicides between the years 2000-2006 have a less than state average with 27.8 per 1,000,000. Suicides are also at a below state average between 2000-2006 with 79.3 per 1,000.000. (Orange County California). While Immigration is an ongoing debate in Orange County and California the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s immigrant population only increased by 15% (1.3 million) in the year 2000s, compared to 37% (2.4 million) in the 1990s (Public Policy institute of California). Obesity andÃ AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is on the rise in Orange County. There are 70% of adults who rate their health as either excellent or good compared with 30% who rate their health as fair or poor. The incidence for AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease has increased 39% between 2005-2009. In 2009 there is a recorded 33.1% adults considered over weight by comparison to 17.3% being obese. In 2011 the Calif orniaÃ Department of Children and physical fitness test showed 37.8% of children tested as having an unhealthy body composition. This high incidence has been found to be contributed to sedentary lifestyles and being overweight. These statistics show evidence for the pertinent nursing diagnosis of ineffective health maintenance as evidenced by the unfavorable health disparities listed above. (Orange County Indicators). Nursing actions for these disparities include more after school activity programs that include physical activities. Schools to be required to offer more fresh fruit and vegetables to be included in meals. Offering education for families and children about the potential risks for child obesity and ways to decrease the numbers by offering nutrition counseling at school. Educating the community of health risk and signs and symptoms of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and where to seek medical attention specifically for this illness in their community. Provide resources from organizations specially designed to assistance families with special needs for people battling AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease such as respite care and hospice. Disaster Assessment and Planning During a disaster such as a nuclear power plant emergency or earthquake, tsunamis, terrorism and acts of war the Sheriff Ã¢â¬â Coroner is designated as the director of emergency services. The counties emergency operations center (EOC) is located at Loma Ridge. In the event of a natural disaster such as a flood, storm, dam failure or coastal oil spill the County executive officer is the director of emergency services (DES). (Orange County Sheriff). The County of Orange also collaborates with the California of Public Health and also with other entities to safeguard a consistent disaster and preparedness planÃ through out this region and nation wide (Orange County, California Disaster and preparedness training). Most Orange County residents are unaware of the disaster planning in their community although there is an overall sense of safety as they put their full trust in community officials. Although there are several safety issues throughout Orange County such as unsafe side walks for the elderly and non- handicap accessible. The County has funded grants and bonds to improve the potential hazards. References Orange County, California. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/county/Orange_County-ID.html County of Health Rankings & Roadmaps. (n.d) Retrieved from http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/app/orangeounty/2014/california/orangecounty/factors/4/5 Community Health Survey Orange County. (n.d) Retrieved from http://www.phd1.california.gov/home/documents/OrangeCountyCombinedResults.pdf Public Policy Institute of California. (n.d). Retrieved from www.ppic.org Orange County Sheriff Department California (n.d). Retrieved from Ocsd.org. Orange County California Disease and Preparedness training.(n.d) Retrieved from Healthdisasteroc.org State and County Quick Facts (n.d) Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html Orange County Health Department. (n.d) Retrieved from http://orangecountygov.com Orange County Indicators (n.d). Retrieved from Cams.ocgov.com Orange County, California State Community Diagnosis The above assessed parameters gives a brief overview of the Health and Safety of Orange County in the State of California. The overall county has statistics showing a healthy community except for the increasing numbers of overweight children who are lacking in physical activity and the increase in AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. The plan is to implement more education on nutrition and resources to families for assistance who suffer from AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s diseases. Also included will be to educate the community on emergency preparedness and disaster planning.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The Exploration of Doubt in Religion The well-known philosopher Voltaire once said, Ã¢â¬Å"doubt . . . is an illness that comes from knowledge and leads to madnessÃ¢â¬ . Many people are raised with a belief instilled in them. As people mature and learn more about the world, many start to question their religious identities. Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t doubt GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence publicly because he has a huge presence in most communities. People fear judgement. I realize as I grow older that itÃ¢â¬â¢s common to doubt and question your religion that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve committed to by performing religious practices such as, church and praying. Ã¢â¬Å"The Lightening is a yellow ForkÃ¢â¬ by Emily Dickinson, Ã¢â¬Å"UphillÃ¢â¬ by Christina Rossetti, and Ã¢â¬Å"Unholy Sonnet, After the PrayingÃ¢â¬ by Mark Jarman portray the doubt many religious people develop of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence when exploring oneÃ¢â¬â¢s religious identity. These poems will encourage the reader to believe in a welcoming, forgiving and limitless God existing despite the doubts. Ã¢â¬Å"The Lightning is a yellow ForkÃ¢â¬ by Emily Dickinson conveys the lack of knowledge people have towards God that leads to the uncertainty of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. Dickinson states, Ã¢â¬Å"the apparatus of the darkÃ¢â¬ (7). This partially revealed apparatus and the sketchy illustration of the mansion in the heavens that are Ã¢â¬Å"never quite disclosed and never quite concealedÃ¢â¬ (6-7). This symbolizes the boundless, unforeseeable and mystifying power of God. No matter how close one looks at the Ã¢â¬ËmansionsÃ¢â¬â¢ in the heavens, one will neverShow MoreRelatedSummary Of Gods Grandeur845 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdistinctive poetic exploration of religious faith in his poems. However, paradoxically he also challenges the role religion has played in making Victorians repress their natural desires, which compels them to doubt GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ability. These are clearly evidenced in two of his famous Pe trarchan sonnets, the nature poem, Ã¢â¬ËGodÃ¢â¬â¢s GrandeurÃ¢â¬â¢ (1877), and the Ã¢â¬Ëterrible sonnetÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËCarrion ComfortÃ¢â¬â¢ (1885-1887), both were written in Victorian late 19th century. Even though Hopkins never doubts the presence of GodRead MoreThemes in Early American Literature Essays1568 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhile a number of themes can be found in early American literature, the only dominant and recurring themes are exploration, hardship, and religion. It is these central ideas around which all early American writing is based. The first prominent theme that appeared in the literature of Christopher Columbus and the many great explorers that followed in his footsteps was that of exploration. With the mission to sail West across the Atlantic Ocean and report back with their findings, these explorersRead MoreDo Science And Religion Conflict?1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessame riddle. Both the system and the points of science and religion appear to be changed. Science is thought to be more connected to the material part for goodness sake, where religion is concerned with the otherworldly. These are only two of the distinctions to be talked about in this paper, as I endeavor to answer the subject of Do Science and religion conflict? Science and religion both make emotions going from suspicion, doubt, and clash to those of admiration, resistance, and sootheRead MoreChristopher Columbus : A Dominant Figure1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplants, population as well as cultures, the Columbian Exchange was created. (Boundless.com) Different kinds of resources were shared after the exploration of the New World, which definitely brought European countries benefits. As a result, increasing number of European colonies came to North America, trying to find new chances for lives. However, there is no doubt that sacrifice was made by specific group of people, especially native Americans. European shared Native AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s resources, occupied theirRead MoreUnification of Spain1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto expand their minds and their wealth with what the Ã¢â¬Å"unknownÃ¢â¬ world had to Ã¢â¬Å"offerÃ¢â¬ . When I say offer, I mean what they could take and run with without consequence. The Europeans wanted to Ã¢â ¬Å"exposeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"enlightenÃ¢â¬ the new world people with their religion. When I say Ã¢â¬Å"exposeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"enlightenÃ¢â¬ , I mean force the new world people to convert to Christianity or they would be slowly tortured to death or burned at the stake. Portugal, one of the all mighty Iberian Sates, was in a hard-hitting competitionRead MoreThe Discovery Of Space Exploration1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor calendars and religion. Our advancing technology allows us to probe, and explore. It would be a shame not to go searching, given that it is a very human thing to do. There is no doubt that the prospects of discovering an alien organism or a second Earth are exciting. And we keep getting closer. History is flooded with major astronomical discovery. Of course, this had not been without controversy (as Galileo knew all too well). The modern controversy regarding space exploration is not of religiousRead MoreManaging Religious Conflict in Therapy1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPsychotherapy Ryan Hagen UMASS Lowell Abstract This paper discusses the relationship of religion and psychology within the setting of interpersonal dynamic psychotherapy. It raises the question of whether and to what extent religion should be included in a therapeutic setting. Varying perspectives on this issue are reviewed, followed by an examination of the consequences of addressing religion within therapy. Several examples are offered of potential pit falls a therapist may encounter inRead More Reports of Gods Death Are a Bit Premature1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Reports of Gods Death Are a Bit Premature Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Arguing the death of God is a debate that will last until eternity. Regardless of exploration or religious zeal there are far too many human viewpoints leaning towards the idea of and the strong need for faith. Believing in God for some is as natural as walking upright and it would seem that through such unquestionable faith God would somehow still be alive. But perhaps He is only surviving with the help of life support. Ã For exampleRead MoreIs Weber s Idea Of Economic Traditionalism1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestraditionalism analysis relevant to the study of religion? Introduction The core of research on religion at present is of no doubt touching Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on economic traditionalism. Weber in Solimano (2012: 42) talked about Ã¢â¬Å"the importance of religion, especially the Protestant ethicÃ¢â¬ in economic life. By venturing into the field of sociology of religion, Weber further succeeded in arousing many scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in the study of different religions in the contemporary world. Agbikimi (2014: 30)Read MoreTheme Of Faith In Young Goodman Brown1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswho is Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦aptly namedÃ¢â¬ in the story, tries to persuade him to not go on his journey, but he cannot be swayed from his exploration. Not only is Faith his wife, but a symbol of his faith to God as well. BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness can be seen when he said, Ã¢â¬Å"My love and my FaithÃ¢â¬ ¦dost thou doubt me already, and we but three months married?Ã¢â¬ Just like his marriage to Faith, BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in his religion is new. Thus, causing Brown to give in into his curiosity to see what is on the other side of good. When Brown leaves
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Policing dates back thousands of years to even before the Roman times. The origins of American policing are closely related the Anglo-Saxon model which gave a more communal responsibility. The four ErasÃ¢â¬â¢ of American policing that will be focused on are The Political, Professional, Community Policing, and Homeland Security. The Political era lasted from 1830-1900. This era can be characterized as political in nature and the police are controlled by elected officials. The police during this era were very uneducated in the ways of the laws and were usually hired in based on the patronage system. This meaning that they were friends or family members while eliminating non supporters (Bailey, 2011). During this era the police were notÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Foot patrol was also introduced making the community feel much safer. The Community Policing era has been one of the contemporary police activities in the last 30 years. It is more of a decentralized approach to reducing crime by involving the same officer in the same community on a long term basis, so residents will develop trust and then provide information and assistance to the officer. Community Policing does not replace motorized patrol or other police tactics but instead compliments them with community partnership and problem solving (Bailey, 2011). Homeland Security is characterized by crime control being the primary police function. It is best achieved through a collective effort by all law enforcement agencies. One of the strategies being used is Intelligence Led Policing. This strategy is not new, it can be traced back to the British is the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s (Bailey, 2011). Intelligence Led Policing is an approach to crime that deals with all crimes and threats including terrorism. This approach is unique because it is threat driven instead of incident driven. It also is a long term approach and focuses on causes and conditions that add to crime through a collection of data. The history of pol icing has changed drastically through the four eras. From the police basically being criminals themselves in the beginning to becoming trained and skilled officers says a lot about our lawShow MoreRelatedProblem-Oriented Policing Essay882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesimprove policing. Among them have been team policing, neighborhood policing, community policing, zero-tolerance policing and problem-oriented policing. Herman Goldstein was the first to propose problem-oriented policing in 1979. Problem-oriented policing is a policing strategy that involves the identification and analysis of specific crime and disorder problems, in order to develop effective response strategies in conjunction with ongoing assessment. 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